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Chapter 15 Test - The Theory of Evolution

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Natural processes such as speciation and gradualism provide the genetic basis for _____.
a.
biogenesis
c.
spontaneous generation
b.
evolution
d.
sexual reproduction
 

 2. 

Which of the following lines of evidence for evolution is indirect?
a.
pesticide resistance
c.
fossils
b.
observed allele frequency changes
d.
all of these
 

 3. 

Which combination of characteristics in a population would provide the greatest potential for evolutionary change?
a.
small population, few mutations
c.
small population, many mutations
b.
large population, many mutations
d.
large population, few mutations
 

 4. 

_____ selection favors one extreme form of a trait in a population.
a.
Stabilizing
c.
Disruptive
b.
Directional
d.
Natural
 

 5. 

The structures shown in Figure 15-5 are _____.
chapter_15_test_-_t_files/i0060000.jpg
Figure 15-5
a.
vestigial
c.
homologous
b.
analogous
d.
heterologous
 

 6. 

What type of adaptation is shown in Figure 15-4?
chapter_15_test_-_t_files/i0070000.jpg
Figure 15-4
a.
artificial selection
c.
camouflage
b.
mimicry
d.
homologous structure
 

 7. 

In _____ selection, individuals with both extreme forms of a trait are at a selective advantage.
a.
disruptive
c.
directional
b.
natural
d.
stabilizing
 

 8. 

Hawaiian honeycreepers are a group of birds with similar body shape and size. However, they vary greatly in color and beak shape. Each species occupies its own niche and is adapted to the foods available in its niche. The evolution from a common ancestor to a variety of species is an example of _____.
a.
divergent evolution
c.
convergent evolution
b.
vegetative propagation
d.
cross-pollination
 

 9. 

Which answer BEST shows an animal's adaptation to the tropical rain forest?
a.
camouflage in a tree frog
c.
an elephant's long trunk
b.
the long neck of a giraffe
d.
migration of birds in winter
 

 10. 

Natural selection can best be defined as the _____.
a.
survival of the biggest and strongest organisms in a population
b.
survival and reproduction of the organisms that occupy the largest area
c.
elimination of the smallest organisms by the biggest organisms
d.
survival and reproduction of the organisms that are genetically best adapted to the environment
 

 11. 

When checking shell color for a species of snail found only in a remote area seldom visited by humans, scientists discovered the distribution of individuals that is shown in the graph in Figure 15-1. Based on the information shown in the graph, the snail population is undergoing _____.
chapter_15_test_-_t_files/i0120000.jpg
Figure 15-1
a.
disruptive selection
c.
stabilizing selection
b.
directional selection
d.
artificial selection
 

 12. 

A pattern of evolution that results when two unrelated species begin to appear similar because of environmental conditions is _____.
a.
divergent evolution
c.
convergent evolution
b.
disruptive selection
d.
directional selection
 

 13. 

What is the movement of genes into and out of a gene pool called?
a.
random mating
c.
nonrandom mating
b.
direct evolution
d.
gene flow
 
 
chapter_15_test_-_t_files/i0150000.jpg
Figure 15-6
 

 14. 

Which type of natural selection shown in Figure 15-6 would favor giraffes that need to reach the tallest branches to eat?
a.
A
c.
B
b.
C
d.
D
 

 15. 

Which type of natural selection showed in Figure 15-6 favors average individuals?
a.
D
c.
B
b.
A
d.
C
 

 16. 

The average individuals of a population are favored in _____ selection.
a.
directional
c.
disruptive
b.
stabilizing
d.
natural
 

 17. 

Why might the beak of the Akialoa, pictured in Figure 15-7, developed this way?
chapter_15_test_-_t_files/i0190000.jpg
Figure 15-7
a.
to reach nectar in flowers
c.
to dig through tree bark for insects
b.
to scoop up fish
d.
to crack open seeds
 

 18. 

Structures that have a similar evolutionary origin and structure but are adapted for different purposes, such as a bat wing and a human arm, are called _____.
a.
homozygous structures
c.
homologous structures
b.
embryological structures
d.
analogous structures
 

 19. 

Upon close examination of the skeleton of an adult python, a pelvic girdle and leg bones can be observed. These features are an example of _____.
a.
artificial selection
c.
homologous structures
b.
comparative embryology
d.
vestigial structures
 

 20. 

The theory of continental drift hypothesizes that Africa and South America slowly drifted apart after once being a single landmass. The monkeys on the two continents, although similar, show numerous genetic differences. Which factor is probably the most important in maintaining these differences?
a.
comparative anatomy
c.
comparative embryology
b.
fossil records
d.
geographic isolation
 

 21. 

Within a decade of the introduction of a new insecticide, nearly all of the descendants of the target pests were immune to the usual-sized dose. The most likely explanation for this immunity to the insecticide is that _____.
a.
eating the insecticide caused the bugs to become resistant to it
b.
the pests developed physiological adaptations to the insecticide
c.
it destroyed organisms that cause disease in the insects, thus allowing them to live longer
d.
eating the insecticide caused the bugs to become less resistant to it
 

 22. 

Which of the following is not a factor that causes changes in the allelic frequencies of individuals in a population?
a.
disruptive selection
c.
random selection
b.
stabilizing selection
d.
directional selection
 

 23. 

The flying squirrel of North America closely resembles the flying phalanger of Australia. They are similar in size and have long, bushy tails and skin folds that allow them to glide through the air. The squirrel is a placental mammal, while the phalanger is a marsupial. These close resemblances, even though genetically and geographically separated by great distances, can best be explained by _____.
a.
divergent evolution
c.
vestigial structures
b.
convergent evolution
d.
spontaneous generation
 

 24. 

A mechanism of Darwin's proposed theory is _____.
a.
variation
c.
artificial selection
b.
evolution
d.
all of these
 

 25. 

The founder of modern evolution theory is considered to be _____.
a.
Stephen Jay Gould
c.
Alexander Oparin
b.
Lynn Margulis
d.
Charles Darwin
 



 
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