Name: 
 

Chapter 15 Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Hawaiian honeycreepers are a group of birds with similar body shape and size. However, they vary greatly in color and beak shape. Each species occupies its own niche and is adapted to the foods available in its niche. The evolution from a common ancestor to a variety of species is an example of _____.
a.
divergent evolution
c.
vegetative propagation
b.
cross-pollination
d.
convergent evolution
 

 2. 

The flying squirrel of North America closely resembles the flying phalanger of Australia. They are similar in size and have long, bushy tails and skin folds that allow them to glide through the air. The squirrel is a placental mammal, while the phalanger is a marsupial. These close resemblances, even though genetically and geographically separated by great distances, can best be explained by _____.
a.
convergent evolution
c.
spontaneous generation
b.
divergent evolution
d.
vestigial structures
 

 3. 

Within a decade of the introduction of a new insecticide, nearly all of the descendants of the target pests were immune to the usual-sized dose. The most likely explanation for this immunity to the insecticide is that _____.
a.
eating the insecticide caused the bugs to become resistant to it
b.
eating the insecticide caused the bugs to become less resistant to it
c.
it destroyed organisms that cause disease in the insects, thus allowing them to live longer
d.
the pests developed physiological adaptations to the insecticide
 

 4. 

Natural processes such as speciation and gradualism provide the genetic basis for _____.
a.
evolution
c.
biogenesis
b.
spontaneous generation
d.
sexual reproduction
 

 5. 

Structures that have a similar evolutionary origin and structure but are adapted for different purposes, such as a bat wing and a human arm, are called _____.
a.
embryological structures
c.
homologous structures
b.
analogous structures
d.
homozygous structures
 

 6. 

Natural selection can best be defined as the _____.
a.
survival of the biggest and strongest organisms in a population
b.
elimination of the smallest organisms by the biggest organisms
c.
survival and reproduction of the organisms that occupy the largest area
d.
survival and reproduction of the organisms that are genetically best adapted to the environment
 

 7. 

A pattern of evolution that results when two unrelated species begin to appear similar because of environmental conditions is _____.
a.
disruptive selection
c.
directional selection
b.
convergent evolution
d.
divergent evolution
 

 8. 

The average individuals of a population are favored in _____ selection.
a.
directional
c.
disruptive
b.
stabilizing
d.
natural
 

 9. 

In _____ selection, individuals with both extreme forms of a trait are at a selective advantage.
a.
directional
c.
disruptive
b.
stabilizing
d.
natural
 

 10. 

_____ selection favors one extreme form of a trait in a population.
a.
Directional
c.
Disruptive
b.
Stabilizing
d.
Natural
 

 11. 

What is the movement of genes into and out of a gene pool called?
a.
random mating
c.
gene flow
b.
nonrandom mating
d.
direct evolution
 

 12. 

Which of the following lines of evidence for evolution is indirect?
a.
pesticide resistance
c.
fossils
b.
observed allele frequency changes
d.
all of these
 

 13. 

Which answer BEST shows an animal's adaptation to the tropical rain forest?
a.
camouflage in a tree frog
c.
an elephant's long trunk
b.
the long neck of a giraffe
d.
migration of birds in winter
 

 14. 

A mechanism of Darwin's proposed theory is _____.
a.
artificial selection
c.
variation
b.
evolution
d.
all of these
 

 15. 

The founder of modern evolution theory is considered to be _____.
a.
Charles Darwin
c.
Stephen Jay Gould
b.
Alexander Oparin
d.
Lynn Margulis
 

 16. 

Upon close examination of the skeleton of an adult python, a pelvic girdle and leg bones can be observed. These features are an example of _____.
a.
artificial selection
c.
vestigial structures
b.
homologous structures
d.
comparative embryology
 

 17. 

Which combination of characteristics in a population would provide the greatest potential for evolutionary change?
a.
small population, few mutations
c.
large population, few mutations
b.
small population, many mutations
d.
large population, many mutations
 

 18. 

The theory of continental drift hypothesizes that Africa and South America slowly drifted apart after once being a single landmass. The monkeys on the two continents, although similar, show numerous genetic differences. Which factor is probably the most important in maintaining these differences?
a.
comparative anatomy
c.
geographic isolation
b.
comparative embryology
d.
fossil records
 

 19. 

Which of the following is not a factor that causes changes in the allelic frequencies of individuals in a population?
a.
stabilizing selection
c.
random selection
b.
directional selection
d.
disruptive selection
 

 20. 

When checking shell color for a species of snail found only in a remote area seldom visited by humans, scientists discovered the distribution of individuals that is shown in the graph in Figure 15-1. Based on the information shown in the graph, the snail population is undergoing _____.
chapter_15_study_gu_files/i0210000.jpg
Figure 15-1
a.
stabilizing selection
c.
artificial selection
b.
disruptive selection
d.
directional selection
 

 21. 

What type of adaptation is shown in Figure 15-4?
chapter_15_study_gu_files/i0220000.jpg
Figure 15-4
a.
mimicry
c.
artificial selection
b.
camouflage
d.
homologous structure
 

 22. 

The structures shown in Figure 15-5 are _____.
chapter_15_study_gu_files/i0230000.jpg
Figure 15-5
a.
homologous
c.
analogous
b.
heterologous
d.
vestigial
 
 
chapter_15_study_gu_files/i0240000.jpg
Figure 15-6
 

 23. 

Which type of natural selection showed in Figure 15-6 favors average individuals?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 24. 

Which type of natural selection shown in Figure 15-6 would favor giraffes that need to reach the tallest branches to eat?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 25. 

Why might the beak of the Akialoa, pictured in Figure 15-7, developed this way?
chapter_15_study_gu_files/i0270000.jpg
Figure 15-7
a.
to reach nectar in flowers
c.
to scoop up fish
b.
to dig through tree bark for insects
d.
to crack open seeds
 



 
Check Your Work     Reset Help