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Chapter 14 Test (Even)

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The Geologic Time Scale begins at the formation of Earth approximately _____ years ago.
a.
46 million
c.
4.6 million
b.
4.6 billion
d.
4.6 thousand
 

 2. 

Humans are thought to have evolved during the _____ Era.
a.
Precambrian
c.
Mesozoic
b.
Paleozoic
d.
Cenozoic
 

 3. 

A clear fish imprint in a rock indicates that the rock is probably _____.
a.
volcanic
c.
metamorphic
b.
igneous
d.
sedimentary
 

 4. 

Which event contributed most directly to the evidence of aerobic organisms?
a.
a decrease in the sun's light intensity
b.
the presence of organisms able to carry on photosynthesis
c.
an increase in the number of organisms carrying on fermentation
d.
an increase in the concentration of methane in the ancient atmosphere
 

 5. 

While looking for fossils on an eroded hillside, you discover fossil coral and fish in one layer. In a layer just above, you find the fossil imprint of a fern frond and some fossil moss. Assuming the rock has not been disturbed, which of the following is the most probable conclusion?
a.
A sea had been replaced by land in ancient times.
b.
The area had been a sea until recent times.
c.
A forest had once grown there but had become submerged by water.
d.
A saltwater sea had changed to a freshwater lake in ancient times.
 

 6. 

Before biogenesis became an accepted cornerstone of biology, it was widely accepted that _____.
a.
Francesco Redi and Louis Pasteur would be unable to test the current beliefs
b.
maggots were the immature offspring of flies
c.
flies could be produced only from other flies
d.
living things could arise spontaneously from other non-living things
 

 7. 

Scientists agree that two developments must have occurred for life to come into being: the formation of simple organic molecules important to life and _____.
a.
an atmosphere rich in water vapor, oxygen, and ATP
b.
organization of molecules into complex organic molecules
c.
appearance of amino acids, monosaccharides, and lipids
d.
development of prokaryotic cells in early oceans
 

 8. 

According to one theory, the first prokaryotes probably obtained their food _____.
a.
by consuming organic molecules available in their environment
b.
through a combination of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
c.
by eating carbohydrates formed by autotrophs
d.
through the synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic molecules
 

 9. 

Which group of organisms is believed to have been the earliest to evolve?
a.
land plants
c.
cyanobacteria
b.
mammals
d.
aquatic dinosaurs
 
 
chapter_14_test_files/i0110000.jpg
Figure 14-4
 

 10. 

According to Figure 14-4, the correct chronological order of organisms as they develop are _____.
a.
birds, dinosaurs, jawed fish, prokaryotes
b.
prokaryotes, jawed fish, dinosaurs, birds
c.
dinosaurs, jawed fish, birds, prokaryotes
d.
jawed fish, dinosaurs, prokaryotes, birds
 

 11. 

According to Figure 14-4, what was the earliest form of multicellular life on Earth?
a.
invertebrates
c.
fish
b.
reptiles
d.
land plants
 

 12. 

According to Figure 14-4, in how many eras have mammals existed?
a.
7
c.
5
b.
4
d.
2
 

 13. 

Which of the following fossils are not found in sedimentary rock?
a.
amber
c.
frozen mammoths
b.
petrified wood
d.
imprints
 

 14. 

Which of the following statements are true about fossils?
a.
There are many different ways that fossils can be formed.
b.
Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rock layers.
c.
Fossil insects that were trapped in ice or hardened into amber.
d.
all of these
 

 15. 

The primitive Earth atmosphere is hypothesized to have consisted mostly of _____.
a.
oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor
b.
hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor
c.
amino acids, ATP, carbohydrates, and oxygen
d.
none of these
 

 16. 

Since the 1950s, experiments have been conducted that lead scientists to conclude that life may have originated _____.
a.
spontaneously as originally thought
b.
in small pools of water where amino acids could be concentrated
c.
when prokaryotes joined together to make the first eukaryotic cell
d.
in other parts of the universe
 

 17. 

Which fact is the basis for using the fossil record as evidence that evolution has taken place?
a.
All fossils were formed at the same time.
b.
In undisturbed layers of rock strata, the older fossils are found in the deeper layers.
c.
There are fossils of all life-forms to be found in rock layers.
d.
Fossils have been shown to provide a complete record of human evolution.
 

 18. 

Urey and Miller subjected water, ammonia, methane, and hydrogen to heating and cooling cycles and jolts of electricity in an attempt to _____.
a.
find out how ozone forms in the atmosphere
b.
form complex organic compounds
c.
determine how the dinosaurs became extinct
d.
determine the age of microfossils
 



 
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