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UNIT 1 QUIZ - Water and the Chemical Context of Life

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following statements is false?
a.
Atoms of the various elements differ in their number of subatomic particles.
b.
All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
c.
The neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom are almost identical in mass; each has a mass of about 1 dalton.
d.
An atom is the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of the element.
e.
Protons and electrons are electrically charged particles. Protons have one unit of negative charge, and electrons have one unit of positive charge.
 

 2. 

In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
a.
hydrogen bonds.
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds.
c.
polar covalent bonds.
d.
ionic bonds.
e.
van der Waals interactions.
 

 3. 

An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between
a.
C and H in methane (CHmc003-1.jpg).
b.
the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule.
c.
Namc003-2.jpgand Clmc003-3.jpg in salt.
d.
the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (Hmc003-4.jpg).
e.
Mgmc003-5.jpgand Clmc003-6.jpg in MgClmc003-7.jpg.
 

 4. 

Water is able to form hydrogen bonds because
a.
oxygen has a valence of 2.
b.
the water molecule is shaped like a tetrahedron.
c.
the bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds.
d.
the oxygen atom in a water molecule has a weak positive charge.
e.
each of the hydrogen atoms in a water molecule is weakly negative in charge.
 

 5. 

Carbon dioxide (mc005-1.jpg) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation mc005-2.jpg Carbonic acid (mc005-3.jpg) is a weak acid. If mc005-4.jpg is bubbled into a beaker containing pure, freshly-distilled water, which of the following graphs correctly describes the results?
a.
mc005-5.jpg
b.
mc005-6.jpg
c.
mc005-7.jpg
d.
mc005-8.jpg
e.
mc005-9.jpg
 

 6. 

Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of
a.
functional groups.
b.
vital forces interacting with matter.
c.
carbon compounds.
d.
water and its interaction with other kinds of molecules.
e.
inorganic compounds.
 

 7. 

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
8
 

 8. 

Which of the following statements best describes the carbon atoms present in a seed-eating bird?
a.
They were incorporated into organic molecules by plants.
b.
They were processed into sugars through photosynthesis.
c.
They are ultimately derived from carbon dioxide.
d.
Only A and C are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 

 9. 

Three or four of the following illustrations depict different structural isomers of the organic compound with molecular formula mc009-1.jpg. For clarity, only the carbon skeletons are shown; hydrogen atoms that would be attached to the carbons have been omitted. Which one, if any, is NOT a structural isomer of this compound?
a.
mc009-2.jpg
b.
mc009-3.jpg
c.
mc009-4.jpg
d.
mc009-5.jpg
e.
Each of the illustrations in the other answer choices depicts a structural isomer of the compound with molecular formula mc009-6.jpg.
 

 10. 


mc010-1.jpg

Figure 4.4
What is the name of the functional group shown in Figure 4.4?
a.
carbonyl
b.
ketone
c.
aldehyde
d.
carboxyl
e.
hydroxyl
 

 11. 

Which of the following contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?
a.
an alcohol such as ethanol
b.
a monosaccharide such as glucose
c.
a steroid such as testosterone
d.
an amino acid such as glycine
e.
a hydrocarbon such as benzene
 

 12. 

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
a.
ketone and aldehyde
b.
carbonyl and carboxyl
c.
carboxyl and amino
d.
phosphate and sulfhydryl
e.
hydroxyl and aldehyde
 

 13. 

Which of the following hydrocarbons has a double bond in its carbon skeleton?
a.
mc013-1.jpg
b.
mc013-2.jpg
c.
mc013-3.jpg
d.
mc013-4.jpg
e.
mc013-5.jpg
 

 14. 

Which of the following is not a polymer?
a.
glucose
b.
starch
c.
cellulose
d.
chitin
e.
DNA
 

 15. 

What is the chemical mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?
a.
phosphodiester linkages
b.
hydrolysis
c.
dehydration reactions
d.
ionic bonding of monomers
e.
the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
 

 16. 

How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long?
a.
12
b.
11
c.
10
d.
9
e.
8
 

 17. 

Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
a.
Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.
b.
Macromolecular synthesis occurs through the removal of water and digestion occurs through the addition of water.
c.
Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
d.
Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
e.
A and B are correct.
 

 18. 

The molecular formula for glucose is mc018-1.jpg. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?
a.
mc018-2.jpg
b.
mc018-3.jpg
c.
mc018-4.jpg
d.
mc018-5.jpg
e.
mc018-6.jpg
 

 19. 

Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
a.
as a pentose
b.
as a hexose
c.
as a monosaccharide
d.
as a disaccharide
e.
as a polysaccharide
 

 20. 


mc020-1.jpg

Figure 5.2

Which of the following statements is true regarding the molecule illustrated in Figure 5.2?
a.
It is a saturated fatty acid.
b.
A diet rich in this molecule may contribute to atherosclerosis.
c.
Molecules of this type are usually liquid at room temperature.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B and C
 



 
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