Name: 
 

Water and the Fitness of the Environment



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
a.
hydrogen bonds.
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds.
c.
polar covalent bonds.
d.
ionic bonds.
e.
van der Waals interactions.
 

 2. 

The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
a.
a covalent bond
b.
a hydrogen bond
c.
an ionic bond
d.
a hydrophilic bond
e.
a hydrophobic bond
 

 3. 

An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between
a.
C and H in methane (CHmc003-1.jpg).
b.
the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule.
c.
Namc003-2.jpgand Clmc003-3.jpg in salt.
d.
the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (Hmc003-4.jpg).
e.
Mgmc003-5.jpgand Clmc003-6.jpg in MgClmc003-7.jpg.
 

 4. 

Water is able to form hydrogen bonds because
a.
oxygen has a valence of 2.
b.
the water molecule is shaped like a tetrahedron.
c.
the bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds.
d.
the oxygen atom in a water molecule has a weak positive charge.
e.
each of the hydrogen atoms in a water molecule is weakly negative in charge.
 

 5. 

What gives rise to the cohesiveness of water molecules?
a.
hydrophobic interactions
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds
c.
ionic bonds
d.
hydrogen bonds
e.
both A and C
 

 6. 

Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface tension of water?
a.
Lakes don't freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures.
b.
A water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond.
c.
Organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off heat due to chemical reactions. D) Water can act as a solvent.
d.
The pH of water remains exactly neutral.
 

 7. 

Which of the following takes place as an ice cube cools a drink?
a.
Molecular collisions in the drink increase.
b.
Kinetic energy in the drink decreases.
c.
A calorie of heat energy is transferred from the ice to the water of the drink.
d.
The specific heat of the water in the drink decreases.
e.
Evaporation of the water in the drink increases.
 

 8. 

Which of the following statements correctly defines a kilocalorie?
a.
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°F
b.
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C
c.
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°F
d.
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C
e.
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1,000 g of water by 1°F
 

 9. 

The nutritional information on a cereal box shows that one serving of a dry cereal has 200 kilocalories. If one were to burn one serving of the cereal, the amount of heat given off would be sufficient to raise the temperature of 20 kg of water how many degrees Celsius?
a.
0.2°C
b.
1.0°C
c.
2.0°C
d.
10.0°C
e.
20.0°C
 

 10. 

Water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
a.
small size of the water molecules.
b.
high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
c.
absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
d.
fact that water is a poor heat conductor.
e.
inability of water to dissipate heat into dry air.
 

 11. 

Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
a.
ionic bonds
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds
c.
polar covalent bonds
d.
hydrogen bonds
e.
covalent bonds
 

 12. 

Temperature usually increases when water condenses. Which behavior of water is most directly responsible for this phenomenon?
a.
the change in density when it condenses to form a liquid or solid
b.
reactions with other atmospheric compounds
c.
the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
d.
the release of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
e.
the high surface tension of water
 

 13. 

At what temperature is water at its densest?
a.
0°C
b.
4°C
c.
32°C
d.
100°C
e.
212°C
 

 14. 

Why does ice float in liquid water?
a.
The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice.
b.
The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
c.
Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
d.
Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.
e.
The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water.
 

 15. 

The following question is based on Figure 3.1: solute molecule surrounded by a hydration shell of water.

mc015-1.jpg

Figure 3.1
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute molecule is most likely
a.
positively charged.
b.
negatively charged.
c.
without charge.
d.
hydrophobic.
e.
nonpolar.
 

 16. 

Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
a.
nonpolar substances that repel water molecules.
b.
nonpolar substances that have an attraction for water molecules.
c.
polar substances that repel water molecules.
d.
polar substances that have an affinity for water.
e.
charged molecules that hydrogen-bond with water molecules.
 

 17. 

One mole (mol) of a substance is
a.
6.02 ´ 10mc017-1.jpg molecules of the substance.
b.
1 g of the substance dissolved in 1 L of solution.
c.
the largest amount of the substance that can be dissolved in 1 L of solution.
d.
the molecular mass of the substance expressed in grams.
e.
A and D only
 

 18. 

How many molecules of glucose (mc018-1.jpg molecular mass =180 daltons) would be present in one mole of glucose?
a.
24
b.
342
c.
23 ´ 1014
d.
180 ´ 1014
e.
6.02 ´ 1023
 

 19. 

How many molecules of glycerol (mc019-1.jpg) would be present in 1 L of a 1 M glycerol solution?
a.
1
b.
14
c.
92
d.
1 ´ 10mc019-2.jpg
e.
6.02 ´ 10mc019-3.jpg
 

 20. 

When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride (NaCl) is placed in water the component atoms of the NaCl crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Namc020-1.jpg) and chloride ions (Clmc020-2.jpg). In contrast, the atoms of covalently bonded molecules (e.g., glucose, sucrose, glycerol) do not generally dissociate when placed in aqueous solution. Which of the following solutions would be expected to contain the greatest number of particles (molecules or ions)?
a.
1 L of 0.5 M NaCl
b.
1 L of 0.5 M glucose
c.
1 L of 1.0 M NaCl
d.
1 L of 1.0 M glucose
e.
C and D will contain equal numbers of particles.
 

 21. 

The molar mass of glucose is 180 g/mol. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to make a 1 M solution of glucose?
a.
Dissolve 1 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
b.
Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
c.
Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 100 g of water.
d.
Dissolve 180 mg (milligrams) of glucose in 1 L of water.
e.
Dissolve 180 g of glucose in water, and then add more water until the total volume of the solution is 1 L.
 

 22. 

The molar mass of glucose (mc022-1.jpg) is 180 g/mol. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to make a 0.5 M solution of glucose?
a.
Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of solution is 1 L.
b.
Dissolve 90 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of the solution is 1 L.
c.
Dissolve 180 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of the solution is 1 L.
d.
Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
e.
Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 23. 

How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be equal to 1 mol of the molecule?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
a.
29
b.
30
c.
60
d.
150
e.
342
 

 24. 

How many grams would be equal to 1 mol of the compound shown in Figure 3.2?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
a.
29
b.
30
c.
60
d.
150
e.
342
 

 25. 

How many grams of the compound in Figure 3.2 would be required to make 2.5 L of a 1 M solution?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
a.
29
b.
30
c.
60
d.
150
e.
342
 

 26. 

A small birthday candle is weighed, then lighted and placed beneath a metal can containing 100 mL of water. Careful records are kept as the temperature of the water rises. Data from this experiment are shown on the graph. What amount of heat energy is released in the burning of candle wax?

mc026-1.jpg
a.
0.5 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
b.
5 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
c.
10 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
d.
20 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
e.
50 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
 

 27. 

Identical heat lamps are arranged to shine on identical containers of water and methanol (wood alcohol), so that each liquid absorbs the same amount of energy minute by minute. The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are non-polar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. Which of the following graphs correctly describes what will happen to the temperature of the water and the methanol?
a.
mc027-1.jpg
b.
mc027-2.jpg
c.
mc027-3.jpg
d.
mc027-4.jpg
e.
mc027-5.jpg
 

 28. 

You have a freshly prepared 0.1M solution of glucose in water. Each liter of this solution contains how many glucose molecules?
a.
6.02 ´ 10mc028-1.jpg
b.
3.01 ´ 10mc028-2.jpg
c.
6.02 ´ 10mc028-3.jpg
d.
12.04 ´ 10mc028-4.jpg
e.
6.02 ´ 10mc028-5.jpg
 

 29. 

The molecular weight of water is 18 daltons. What is the molarity of 1 liter of pure water?
a.
55.6M
b.
18M
c.
37M
d.
0.66M
e.
1.0M
 

 30. 

You have a freshly-prepared 1M solution of glucose in water. You carefully pour out a 100 mL sample of that solution. How many glucose molecules are included in that 100 mL sample?
a.
6.02 ´ 10mc030-1.jpg
b.
3.01 ´ 10mc030-2.jpg
c.
6.02 ´ 10mc030-3.jpg
d.
12.04 ´ 10mc030-4.jpg
e.
6.02 ´ 10mc030-5.jpg
 

 31. 

Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong acid?
a.
NaOH
b.
HCl
c.
NHmc031-1.jpg
d.
Hmc031-2.jpgCOmc031-3.jpg
e.
CHmc031-4.jpgCOOH
 

 32. 

Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong base (alkali)?
a.
NaCl
b.
HCl
c.
NHmc032-1.jpg
d.
Hmc032-2.jpgCOmc032-3.jpg
e.
NaOH
 

 33. 

Which of the following statements is completely correct?
a.
Hmc033-1.jpgCOmc033-2.jpg is a weak acid, and NaOH is a weak base (alkali).
b.
Hmc033-3.jpgCOmc033-4.jpg is a strong acid, and NaOH is a strong base (alkali).
c.
NHmc033-5.jpg is a weak base (alkali), and Hmc033-6.jpgCOmc033-7.jpg is a strong acid.
d.
NHmc033-8.jpg is a weak base (alkali), and HCl is a strong acid.
e.
NHmc033-9.jpg is a strong base (alkali), and HCl is a weak acid.
 

 34. 

A given solution contains 0.0001(10mc034-1.jpg) moles of hydrogen ions [Hmc034-2.jpg] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
a.
acidic: Hmc034-3.jpg acceptor
b.
basic: Hmc034-4.jpg acceptor
c.
acidic: Hmc034-5.jpg donor
d.
basic: Hmc034-6.jpg donor
e.
neutral
 

 35. 

A solution contains 0.0000001(10mc035-1.jpg) moles of hydroxyl ions [OHmc035-2.jpg] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
a.
acidic: Hmc035-3.jpg acceptor
b.
basic: Hmc035-4.jpg acceptor
c.
acidic: Hmc035-5.jpg donor
d.
basic: Hmc035-6.jpg donor
e.
neutral
 

 36. 

What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion [OHmc036-1.jpg] concentration of 10mc036-2.jpg M?
a.
pH 2
b.
pH 4
c.
pH 10
d.
pH 12
e.
pH 14
 

 37. 

What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion [Hmc037-1.jpg] concentration of 10mc037-2.jpg M?
a.
pH 2
b.
pH 4
c.
pH 6
d.
pH 8
e.
pH 10
 

 38. 

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions [Hmc038-1.jpg]?
a.
gastric juice at pH 2
b.
vinegar at pH 3
c.
tomato juice at pH 4
d.
black coffee at pH 5
e.
household bleach at pH 12
 

 39. 

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxyl ions [OHmc039-1.jpg]?
a.
lemon juice at pH 2
b.
vinegar at pH 3
c.
tomato juice at pH 4
d.
urine at pH 6
e.
seawater at pH 8
 

 40. 

If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the
a.
concentration of Hmc040-1.jpg has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9.
b.
concentration of Hmc040-2.jpg has increased 10-fold (10X) compared to what it was at pH 9.
c.
concentration of OHmc040-3.jpg has increased 10-fold (10X) compared to what it was at pH 9.
d.
concentration of OHmc040-4.jpg has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9.
e.
Both B and D are correct.
 

 41. 

If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the
a.
concentration of Hmc041-1.jpg is twice (2X) what it was at pH 5.
b.
concentration of Hmc041-2.jpg is half (1/2) what it was at pH 5.
c.
concentration of OHmc041-3.jpg is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.
d.
concentration of OHmc041-4.jpg is one-hundredth (0.01X) what it was at pH 5.
e.
concentration of Hmc041-5.jpg is 100 times greater and the concentration of OHmc041-6.jpg is one-hundredth what they were at pH 5.
 

 42. 

One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (Hmc042-1.jpg) than 1 L of a solution of pH 6?
a.
4 times more
b.
400 times more
c.
4,000 times more
d.
10,000 times more
e.
100,000 times more
 

 43. 

One liter of a solution pH 9 has how many more hydroxyl ions (OHmc043-1.jpg) than 1 L of a solution of pH 4?
a.
5 times more
b.
100 times more
c.
1,000 times more
d.
10,000 times more
e.
100,000 times more
 

 44. 

Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?
a.
They maintain a constant pH when bases are added to them but not when acids are added to them.
b.
They maintain a constant pH when acids are added to them but not when bases are added to them.
c.
They maintain a constant pH of exactly 7 in all living cells and biological fluids.
d.
They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.
e.
They are found only in living systems and biological fluids.
 

 45. 

Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by
a.
releasing Hmc045-1.jpg in acidic solutions.
b.
donating Hmc045-2.jpg to a solution when they have been depleted.
c.
releasing OHmc045-3.jpg in basic solutions.
d.
accepting Hmc045-4.jpg when the are in excess.
e.
Both B and D are correct.
 

 46. 

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (mc046-1.jpg). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (mc046-2.jpg) and a hydrogen ion (Hmc046-3.jpg). Thus,
mc046-4.jpg
If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect
a.
a decrease in the concentration of mc046-5.jpg and an increase in the concentration of mc046-6.jpg.
b.
the concentration of hydroxide ion (OHmc046-7.jpg) to increase.
c.
the concentration of bicarbonate ion (mc046-8.jpg) to increase.
d.
the mc046-9.jpg to act as a base and remove excess H+ with the formation of mc046-10.jpg.
e.
the mc046-11.jpg to act as an acid and remove excess H+ with the formation of mc046-12.jpg.
 

 47. 

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid mc047-1.jpg. Carbonic acid is a weak acid that when placed in an aqueous solution dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCOmc047-2.jpg) and a hydrogen ion (Hmc047-3.jpg). Thus,
mc047-4.jpg
If the pH of the blood increases, one would expect
a.
a decrease in the concentration of mc047-5.jpg and an increase in the concentration of mc047-6.jpg.
b.
an increase in the concentration of mc047-7.jpg and a decrease in the concentration of mc047-8.jpg.
c.
a decrease in the concentration of mc047-9.jpg and an increase in the concentration of mc047-10.jpg.
d.
an increase in the concentration of mc047-11.jpg and a decrease in the concentration of mc047-12.jpg.
 

 48. 

Assume that acid rain has lowered the pH of a particular lake to pH 4.0. What is the hydroxyl ion concentration of this lake?
a.
1 ´ 10mc048-1.jpg mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water
b.
1 ´ 10mc048-2.jpg mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water
c.
10.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration
d.
4.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration
e.
both B and D
 

 49. 

Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by
a.
buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams.
b.
decreasing the Hmc049-1.jpg concentration of lakes and streams.
c.
increasing the OHmc049-2.jpg concentration of lakes and streams.
d.
washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients for plant growth.
e.
both B and C
 

 50. 

Consider two solutions: solution X has a pH of 4; solution Y has a pH of 7. From this information, we can reasonably conclude that
a.
solution Y has no free hydrogen ions (Hmc050-1.jpg).
b.
the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 30 times as great as the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y.
c.
the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y is 1,000 times as great as the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X.
d.
the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 3 times as great as the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y.
e.
None of the other answer choices correctly describes these solutions.
 

 51. 

Pure, freshly-distilled water has a pH of 7. This means that
a.
there are no Hmc051-1.jpg ions in the water.
b.
there are no OHmc051-2.jpg ions in the water.
c.
the concentration of Hmc051-3.jpg ions in the water equals the concentration of OHmc051-4.jpg ions in the water.
d.
the concentration of Hmc051-5.jpg ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of OHmc051-6.jpg ions in the water.
e.
The concentration of OHmc051-7.jpg ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of Hmc051-8.jpg ions in the water.
 

 52. 

Carbon dioxide (mc052-1.jpg) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation mc052-2.jpg Carbonic acid (mc052-3.jpg) is a weak acid. If mc052-4.jpg is bubbled into a beaker containing pure, freshly-distilled water, which of the following graphs correctly describes the results?
a.
mc052-5.jpg
b.
mc052-6.jpg
c.
mc052-7.jpg
d.
mc052-8.jpg
e.
mc052-9.jpg
 

 53. 

Carbon dioxide (COmc053-1.jpg) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation COmc053-2.jpg + Hmc053-3.jpgO mc053-4.jpg Hmc053-5.jpgCOmc053-6.jpg. Carbonic acid (Hmc053-7.jpgCOmc053-8.jpg) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release COmc053-9.jpg. What prediction can we make about the pH of blood as that blood first comes in contact with respiring cells?
a.
Blood pH will decrease slightly.
b.
Blood pH will increase slightly.
c.
Blood pH will remain unchanged.
d.
Blood pH will first increase, then decrease as COmc053-10.jpg combines with hemoglobin.
e.
Blood pH will first decrease, then increase sharply as COmc053-11.jpg combines with hemoglobin.
 

 54. 

A 100 mL beaker contains 10 mL of NaOH solution at pH = 13. A technician carefully pours into the beaker, 10 mL of HCl at pH = 1. Which of the following statements correctly describes the results of this mixing?
a.
The concentration of Namc054-1.jpg ion rises.
b.
The concentration of Clmc054-2.jpg ion falls.
c.
The concentration of undissociated Hmc054-3.jpgO molecules remains unchanged.
d.
The pH of the beaker's contents rises.
e.
The pH of the beaker's contents falls.
 

 55. 

Equal volumes of vinegar from a freshly-opened bottle are added to each of the following solutions. After complete mixing, which of the mixtures will have the highest pH?
a.
100 mL of pure water
b.
100 mL of freshly-brewed coffee
c.
100 mL of household cleanser containing 0.5M ammonia
d.
100 mL of freshly-squeezed orange juice
e.
100 mL of tomato juice
 

 56. 

You have two beakers; one contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol (wood alcohol). The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) into each beaker. Predict what will happen.
a.
Equal amounts of NaCl crystals will dissolve in both water and methanol.
b.
NaCl crystals will NOT dissolve in either water or methanol.
c.
NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol.
d.
NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in methanol but will not dissolve in water.
e.
When the first crystals of NaCl are added to water or to methanol, they will not dissolve; but as more crystals are added, the crystals will begin to dissolve faster and faster.
 

 57. 

You have two beakers. One contains a solution of HCl at pH = 1.0. The other contains a solution of NaOH at pH = 13. Into a third beaker, you slowly and cautiously pour 20 mL of the HCL and 20 mL of the NaOH. After complete stirring, the pH of the mixture will be
a.
2.0.
b.
12.0.
c.
7.0.
d.
5.0.
e.
9.0.
 
 
Self-Quiz Questions
 

 58. 

Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?
a.
water's change in density when it condenses
b.
water's ability to dissolve molecules in the air
c.
the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
d.
the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
e.
water's high surface tension
 

 59. 

A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (Note: A liter of cold water weighs about 1 kg.)
a.
50°C
b.
5°C
c.
10°C
d.
100°C
e.
1°C
 

 60. 

The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are
a.
ionic bonds.
b.
hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
c.
covalent bonds between atoms within water molecules.
d.
polar covalent bonds.
e.
nonpolar covalent bonds
 

 61. 

Which of the following is a hydrophobic material?
a.
paper
b.
table salt
c.
wax
d.
sugar
e.
pasta
 

 62. 

We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
a.
mass in daltons.
b.
mass in grams.
c.
number of molecules.
d.
number of atoms.
e.
volume.
 

 63. 

How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2) would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid? (Note: The atomic masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 for carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.)
a.
10.0 g
b.
0.1 g
c.
6.0 g
d.
60.0 g
e.
0.6 g
 

 64. 

Measurements show that the pH of a particular lake is 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake?
a.
4.0 M
b.
10mc064-1.jpg M
c.
10mc064-2.jpg M
d.
10mc064-3.jpg M
e.
4%
 

 65. 

What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake described in question 7?
a.
10mc065-1.jpg M
b.
10mc065-2.jpg M
c.
10mc065-3.jpg M
d.
10mc065-4.jpg M
e.
10 M
 

Short Answer
 

 66. 

Draw three water molecules and label the atoms. Draw solid lines to indicate covalent bonds and dotted lines for hydrogen bonds. Add partial charge labels as appropriate.
 



 
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